Glossary

A

abdomen: the posterior or third region of the body of the bee that encloses the honey stomach, stomach, intestines, stinger and the reproductive organs.

abscond: to entirely abandon the hive.

absconding swarm: a swarm composed of an entire colony of bees that has abandoned its hive due to disease, predators, or a real or perceived threat.

acaricide: a chemical designed to kill arachnids such as mites.

acarine disease: The name of the disease caused by the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi.)

Acute Paralysis Virus aka APV: A viral disease of adult bees which affects their ability to use legs or wings normally. It can kill adults and brood.

AFB: abbr. American foul brood – a brood disease of honey bees caused by the spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae. The spore stage of the bacterium can remain viable for many years, making is difficult to eliminate the disease.

afterswarm: a secondary or tertiary swarm that is produced by the colony after the first (primary) swarm of the season. These swarms are usually smaller than the primary swarm and may contain one or more virgin queens. The afterswarm may be a detrimental event for the colony.

alarm pheromone: A chemical (iso-pentyl acetate) substance which smells similar to artificial banana flavoring, released near the worker bee’s sting, which alerts the hive to an attack.

annual: a plant that lives only one growing season.

antenna (pl. antennae): one of the two long, thin sensory organs on the bee’s head involved in taste and smell.

apiarist: a beekeeper.

apiary: a bee yard.

apiculture – the science and art of raising honey bees.

Apis mellifera: The scientific name of the European honey bee.

B

bait hive – A hive or box placed preferably in an elevated location used to attract and hopefully capture swarms.

balling: worker bees surrounding a queen either to confine her because they reject her or to confine her to protect her.

bee bread: a fermented mixture of collected pollen, nectar or honey, and bee secretions, deposited in the cells of a comb.  Pollen is the primary pollen source for bees and is used especially by the nurse bees to produce royal jelly to feed the young larvae.

bee brush – a brush or whisk broom used to gently remove bees from combs.

bee escape – a device used to remove bees from honey supers or buildings by permitting bees to pass one way but preventing their return.

bee glue: propolis.

bee-haver: A derogatory epithet for a person who owns bees but who lacks essential beekeeping skills and knowledge.

beehive – a box or receptacle with movable frames, used for housing a colony of bees.

bee jacket: a white jacket, usually with a zip on veil and elastic at the sleeves and waist, worn as protection when working bees.

beekeeper: a person who keeps bees.

bee metamorphosis – the three stages through which a bee passes before reaching maturity: egg, larva, and pupa. During the pupal stage, large fat reserves are used to transform both the internal and external anatomy of the bee.

bee moth: a general term used for either of two species of wax moths.

bee nest: a place where bees raise their young. It may be large and contain many individuals, as in honey bees or bumble bees. Or the nest may be small and contain just a few eggs, as in most of the solitary bees. Nests may be built in hollow cavities either above and below ground, depending on the species.

Bee Quick: a chemical, that smells like benzaldehyde that is used to drive bees from supers.

bee tree: a hollow tree containing one or more colonies of bees.

bee space – 3/8-inch space between combs and hive parts in which bees build no comb or deposit only a small amount of propolis. Bee spaces are used as corridors to move within the hive.

beeswax: a complex mixture of organic compounds secreted by four pairs of special glands on the worker bee’s abdomen and used for building comb and cappings.

bee yard: an apiary

bee veil – a cloth or form of hat usually made of wire netting to protect the beekeeper’s head and neck from stings.

bee venom – the poison secreted by special glands attached to the stinger of the bee.

biodiversity: The relative abundance and variety of plant and animal species and ecosystems within a particular habitat.

boomer: a colony which is healthy and multiplying fast. It is booming. You need to keep an eye on them, especially in the spring time as they can swarm if the hive is too crowded. Adding a box is recommended.

bottom board – the floor of a beehive that all the other components build upon.

brace comb – a small bit of wax built between two combs or frames to fasten them together. Brace comb is also built between a comb and adjacent wood, or between two wooden parts such as top bars.

brood: all immature bees in a hive, including the eggs, larvae, and pupae; eggs and larvae are in open cells, pupae are in wax-covered cells

brood chamber: the part of the hive in which the brood is reared; may include one or more hive bodies and the combs within.

brood comb: any comb in the hive in which brood is found; multiple combs of brood make up the brood chamber

brood food: glandular secretions of nurse bees that are used to feed larvae and, to a lesser extent, to feed the queen, drones, and foragers

brood nest: the area in a hive devoted to brood rearing. Nest shape is roughly spherical, but in cold areas it may be taller and less wide (to limit heat loss) and in warm areas is may be wider and less tall (to encourage heat loss).

Buckfast: a strain of bees developed by Brother Adam at Buckfast Abbey in England, bred for disease resistance, disinclination to swarm, hardiness, comb building and good temper.

burr comb – a bit of wax built upon a comb or upon a wooden part in a hive but not connected to any other part.

C

capped brood: pupae whose cells have been sealed with a porous cover by mature bees to isolate them during their nonfeeding pupal period; also called sealed brood.

capped honey: honey that has been dehydrated to the proper moisture content and covered with wax

cappings: a thin layer of wax used to cover the full cells of honey. This layer of wax is sliced from the surface of a honey-filled comb.

capping scratcher: a fork-like device used to remove wax cappings covering honey, so it can be extracted. Usually used on low areas that get missed by the uncapping knife.

castes: – a term used to describe social insects of the same species and sex that differ in morphology or behavior. In honey bees there are two castes, workers and queens. The drones are a different sex and therefore not included.

cavity tree: a tree that contains one or more hollowed out holes in the main trunk. The holes (or cavities) are potential nesting sites for honey bees and some wasp species.

cell: a hexagonal compartment in a honey bee comb used for rearing of brood and storage of pollen and honey

chilled brood: Bee larvae and pupae that have died from exposure to cold. This typically occurs in spring when the colony is expanding rapidly and on cold nights there aren’t enough bees to keep the brood warm.

chunk honey: honey cut from frames and placed in jars along with liquid honey.

cluster: a group of bees clinging together to maintain temperatures inside the hive. The cluster expands as the seasonal temperature increases.

cocoon: the protective covering around the pupae

cold way: when frames in the brood box are perpendicular to the hive opening

colony: all the worker bees, drones, queen, and developing brood living together in one hive or other dwelling.

comb: an interconnected group of wax cells.

comb foundation: a commercially made structure consisting of thin sheets of beeswax with the cell bases of worker cells embossed on both sides in the same manner as they are produced naturally by honey bees.

comb honey: honey produced and sold in the comb. It is produced either by cutting the comb from the frame or when the comb is built in special frames which allow for its easy removal.

complete metamorphosis: the four stage development process of an insect that includes egg, larva, pupa, and adult

corbicula (pl. corbiculae): a widened portion of the rear legs of female honey bees covered by curved spines where pollen is stored for transport, also known as pollen baskets.

corridor: a band of vegetation, especially one containing flowering plants, which serves to connect patches of habitat, which would otherwise become fragmented. Corridors allow gene flow between populations of bees and help prevent inbreeding.

creamed honey: honey which has crystallized under controlled conditions to produce a tiny crystal and a smooth texture. Often a starter or seed is used to help control the crystallization.

cross-pollination – the transfer of pollen from an anther of one plant to the stigma of a different plant of the same species.  Honeybees are excellent pollinators.

crystallization – the formation of sugar crystals in honey.

D

Dead-out: It is a colony which died out, usually after winter.

dearth: a period of time when there is no available forage for bees, due to weather conditions (rain, drought) or time of year.

deep: a box that is 9 5/8″ deep and the frame is 9 1/4″ deep. Sometimes called a Langstroth Deep.

Deformed Wing Virus: a virus spread by the Varroa mite that causes crumpled looking wings on fuzzy newly emerged bees.

diploid: having two set of homologous chromosomes.

dividing: splitting a colony to form two or more colonies.

division board feeder: a wooden or plastic compartment which is hung in a hive like a frame and contains feed for bees.

double screen: a wooden frame with two layers of wire screen to separate two colonies within the same hive, one above the other. An entrance is cut on the upper side and placed to the rear of the hive for the upper colony.

drawn combs: cells which have been built out by honey bees from foundation in a frame.

drifting of bees: the failure of bees to return to their own hive in an apiary containing many colonies. Young bees tend to drift more than older bees, and bees from small colonies tend to drift into larger colonies.

drone: a male haploid bee that develops from an unfertilized egg.

drone comb: comb measuring about four cells per linear inch that is used for drone rearing and honey storage.

drone laying queen: a queen that can lay only unfertilized eggs, due to age, improper or late mating, disease or injury.

dwindling: any rapid decline in the population of the hive. The rapid dying off of old bees in the spring; sometimes called spring dwindling or disappearing disease.

dysentery: a condition of adult bees characterized by severe diarrhea and usually caused by starvation, low-quality food,, confinement due to poor weather conditions, or nosema infection.

E

ecology: the study of plants and animals in relation to their physical and biological surroundings.

eggs: the first phase in the bee life cycle, usually laid by the queen, is the cylindrical egg 1/16in (1.6 mm) long; it is enclosed with a flexible shell or chorion. It resembles a small grain of rice.

EHB: European honey bee.

end bar: The piece of a frame that is on the ends of the frame. In other words the vertical pieces of the frame.

entrance reducer: A wooden strip used to regulate the size of the entrance.

escape board: a board having one or more bee escapes in it used to remove bees from supers.

ether wash: putting a cupful of bees in a jar with a spray of starter fluid to kill the bees and mites so you can count the Varroa mites. A sugar roll is a non-lethal and much less flammable method of doing the same.

European Foulbrood: an infectious disease which only affects the brood of honey bees and is caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pluton.

European Honey Bees: Bees from Europe as opposed to bees originating in Africa or other parts of the world or bees crossbred with those from Africa.

extracted honey: honey removed from combs usually by means of a centrifugal force (an extractor) in order to leave the combs intact.

extractor: a machine which removes honey from the cells of comb by centrifugal force.

F

fermenting honey: honey which contains too much water (greater than 20%) in which yeast has grown and caused it to turn into carbon dioxide, water and alcohol.

feral (queen or bees): since all North American bees are considered to have come from domestic stock, what most people call “wild” bees are really “feral” bees. Some use the term for survivor bees that were captured and used to raise queens meaning they WERE feral as opposed to ARE feral.

fertile queen: an inseminated queen.

fertilized: usually refers to eggs laid by a queen bee, they are fertilized with sperm stored in the queen’s spermatheca, in the process of being laid. These develop into workers or queens.

festooning: the activity of young bees, engorged with honey, hanging on to each other usually to secrete beeswax but also in bearding and swarming.

field bees: worker bees which are usually 21 or more days old and work outside to collect nectar, pollen, water and propolis; also called foragers.

flow: the presence of large amounts of nectar or pollen, usually used in reference to a particular plant species, as in “a good maple flow”

follower board: a thin board the size of a frame that can be inserting into a hive to reduce the space available to the bees. This is done to help smaller colonies that may have trouble keeping the brood nest warm.

foraging: the collection by bees of water, nectar, pollen, and propolis from their environment

forb: a non-woody (herbaceous) broad-leaved (not a grass, sedge, or rush) flowering plant. The term usually refers to species growing in fields, prairies, or meadows.

foundation: a commercial product made from beeswax that is used as a starter substrate for bees to build comb. Although not necessary, its use results in evenly-spaced and parallel comb

frame: a rectangular structure, with or without foundation, in which bees build comb. Frames allow combs to be removed for inspection or harvest without damaging the colony

fructose: Fruit sugar, also called levulose (left handed sugar), a monosaccharide commonly found in honey that is slow to granulate

fungicide: a chemical designed to kill fungus or mold

G

gloves: leather, cloth or rubber gloves worn while inspecting bees.

glucose: also known as dextrose, it is a simple sugar (or monosaccharide) and is one of the two main sugars found in honey; forms most of the solid phase in granulated honey.

grafting: removing a worker larva from its cell and placing it in an artificial queen cup in order to have it reared into a queen.

granulation: the formation of sugar crystals in honey which may cause it to turn solid.

guard bees: worker bees about three weeks old, which have their maximum amount of alarm pheromone and venom; they challenge all incoming bees and other intruders.

H

hair clip queen catcher: a device used to catch a queen that resembles a hair clip. Available from most beekeeping supply houses.

haploid: having only one set of chromosomes

hemolymph: the scientific name for insect “blood.”

herbicide: a chemical designed to kill plants

hive: usually refers to a man-made structure that houses bees, but may also be a synonym for a bee colony

hive stand: a structure used to hold a hive above ground level

hive tool: a metal tool of various types used for beekeeping; may be used for scraping, prying, lifting, and cleaning.

honey: nectar that has been dehydrated by the bees so that it contains no more than 17-18% water. It contains small amounts of mineral matter, vitamins, proteins, and enzymes.

honey bound: a condition where the brood nest of a hive is being backfilled with honey. This is a normal condition that is used by the workers to shut down the queen’s brood production. It usually happens just before swarming and in the fall to prepare for winter.

honeydew: a sweet liquid excreted by aphids, leafhoppers, and some scale insects that is collected by bees, especially in the absence of a good source of nectar.

honey flow: a time when enough nectar-bearing plants are blooming such that bees can store a surplus of honey.

honey stomach: a crop, an enlargement of the esophagus that is used to collect and transport nectar.

horizontal hive: a hive that is laid out horizontally instead of vertically in order to eliminate lifting boxes.

Hypopharyngeal gland: a gland located in the head of a worker bee that secretes “royal jelly” and “workers jelly”. This rich blend of proteins and vitamins is fed to all bee larvae for the first three days of their lives and queens during their entire development.

I

IAPV: abbr. Israeli acute paralysis virus; one of the many bee viruses carried by Varroa mites.

infertile: incapable of producing a fertilized egg, as a laying worker or drone laying queen. Unfertilized eggs develop into drones.

inner cover: a lightweight cover used under a standard telescoping cover on a beehive.

insecticide: a chemical designed to kill insects

invertase: an enzyme produced by the honey bee which helps to transform sucrose to dextrose and levulose.

JK

Kenya Top Bar Hive: a top bar hive with sloped sides. The theory is that they will have less attachments on the sides because of the slope.

L

landing board: a small platform at the entrance of the hive for the bees to land on before entering the hive.

larva: an immature, grub-like bee intermediate between egg and pupal stages.

larva, open: the second developmental stage of a bee, starting the 4th day from when the egg is layed until it’s capped on about the 9th or 10th day.

larva, capped: the second developmental stage of a bee, ready to pupate or spin its cocoon (about the 10th day from the egg).

laying worker: a worker which lays unfertilized eggs, producing only drones, usually in colonies that are hopelessly queenless.

leg baskets: also called pollen baskets, a flattened depression surrounded by curved spines located on the outside of the tibiae of the bees’ hind legs and adapted for carrying flower pollen and propolis.

lemon grass essential oil: essential oil used for swarm lure. Lemongrass oil contains all of the compounds known to affect the behavior of the bees and all but one of the compounds of Nasonov pheromone.

M

mandibles: the jaws of an insect; used by bees to form the honey comb and scrape pollen, in fighting and picking up hive debris.

mating flight: the flight taken by a virgin queen while she mates in the air with several drones.

mead: honey wine.

migratory cover: an outer cover used without an inner cover that does not telescope over the sides of the hive; used by commercial beekeepers who frequently move hives. This allows hives to be packed tightly against one another because the cover does not protrude over the sides.

miticide: see acaricide

monoculture: the agricultural practice of  growing one single crop over a wide area.

mouse guard: a device to reduce the entrance to a hive so that mice cannot enter. Commonly #4 hardware cloth.

movable combs: combs that are built in a hive that allows them to be manipulated and inspected. Top bar hives have movable combs but not frames. Langstroth hives have movable combs IN frames.

movable frames: a frame constructed in such a way to preserve the bee space, so they can be easily removed; when in place, it remains unattached to its surroundings.

N

nadir: (used as a verb) to add a bee box under the others, as in Warre beekeeping.

nasonov: a pheromone used given off by a gland under the tip of the abdomen of workers that serves primarily as an orientation pheromone. It is essential to swarming behavior and nasonoving is set off by disturbance of the colony.

nasonoving: bees who have their abdomens extended and are fanning the Nasonov pheromone. The smell is lemony

natural cell: cell size that bees have built on their own without foundation.

natural comb: comb that bees have built on their own without foundation.

nectar: a sweet solution secreted by the glands of plants

nectar flow: a time when nectar is plentiful and bees produce and store surplus honey.

nectar guide: color marks on flowers believed to direct insects to nectar sources

neonicotinoid: a class of insecticides which act on the central nervous system of insects and are chemically similar to nicotine

newspaper method: a technique to join together two strange colonies by providing a temporary newspaper barrier.

Nosema apis: a microsporidian parasite of honey bees that lives in the intestines and destroys the epithelial cells of the midgut. It affects honey bee nutrition and shortens the life of worker bees.

nuc: a shortened form of “nucleus hive,” a small brood box designed to contain 2, 3, 4, or 5 frames. These are often used to start new colonies.

nurse bees: young worker bees, usually three to ten days old, that produce brood food and feed and take care of developing brood.

O

observation hive: a hive made largely of glass or clear plastic to permit observation of bees at work

open mesh floor: a bottom board with screen (usually #8 hardware cloth) for the bottom to allow ventilation and to allow Varroa mites to fall through. In the US this is typically called a Screened Bottom Board.

orientation flight: short flights around the hive taken by young bees in order to prepare for foraging.

outer cover: the last cover that fits over a hive to protect it from rain; the two most common kinds are telescoping and migratory covers.

outyard: also called out apiary, it is an apiary kept at some distance from the home or main apiary of a beekeeper; usually over a mile away from the home yard.

over-wintering: the process of survival during the winter months, during which the bee lives on stores collected during the spring and summer. Bees do not hibernate but actively maintain colony temperatures by clustering.

P

parthenogenesis: development from unfertilized eggs. In honey bees the drones (males) result from parthenogenesis

pellet: the contents of a pollen basket (corbicula)

perennial: lasting a long time, such as a plant that lives more than two years

pesticides: a chemical designed to kill a pest

pheromone: a chemical substance released by an animal to induce a response in another animal of the same species

pollen: a powder-like substance produced by the anthers of flowering plants and containing the male gametes

pollen basket: a flattened depression surrounded by curved hairs, located on the outer surface of a bee’s hind legs and adapted for carrying pollen to the hive.

pollen patty: a mixture of sugar syrup (or honey) and pollen (or pollen substitute) used as a winter source of protein and amino acids

pollen pellets or cakes: the pollen packed in the pollen baskets of bees and transported back to the colony made by rolling in the pollen, brushing it off and mixing it with nectar and packing it into the pollen baskets.

pollen substitute: a high-protein powder used as a protein supplement in lieu of pollen; may contain soy flour, brewer’s yeast, and other products

pollen trap: a device for removing pollen pellets from the corbiculae of incoming bees.

pollination: the movement of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of a compatible flower

pollinator: an agent that transfers pollen from one flower to another

primary swarm: the first swarm to leave the parent colony, usually with the old queen (see secondary swarm). It is a favourable event for the colony.

proboscis: the “tongue” of a bee used to suck nectar and water

propolis: plant resins that are collected by bees and used to seal cracks and soften rough edges in the hive. Also called “bee glue” propolis is high in antimicrobial substances

protein: an organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain in an order specified by a gene’s DNA sequence

pupa: the stage of development immediately preceding the adult stage. A pupa is sealed under a wax capping where it spins a cocoon and completes development.

Q

queen: a fully developed female honey bee. Once mated, the queen stores sperm for as long as three or four years and lays eggs at varying rates throughout the year. Normally, there is just one queen per hive.

queen cage: a small cage in which a queen and three to five worker bees are confined for shipping and introduction into a colony.

queen cell: a special elongated cell in which the queen is reared. It is above an inch or more long and hangs down from the comb in a vertical position.

queen excluder: metal or plastic device with spaces that permit the passage of workers but restrict the movement of drones and queens to a specific part of the hive.

queenless: a colony without a mated queen

queenright: a colony that contains a queen capable of laying fertile eggs and making appropriate pheromones that satisfy the workers of the hive that all is well.

quilt: in Warre beekeeping, a box placed above the topmost top bars which contains natural materials such as sawdust, woodchips, straw, or dry leaves that absorb excess hive moisture


R

raw honey: honey that has not been finely filtered or heated.

re-queen: a process in which a beekeeper removes the queen from a colony and replace her with a different one

retinue: worker bees that are attending the queen.

robber bee: bees which enter weak or dying colonies to steal honey.

robber screen: a screen used to foil robbers but let the local residents into the hive.

robbing: stealing of nectar, or honey, by bees from other colonies which happens more often during a nectar dearth.

rolling: a term to describe what happens when a frame is too tight or pulled out too quickly and bees get pushed against the comb next to it and “rolled”. This makes bees very angry and is sometimes the cause of a queen being killed.

royal jelly: a glandular secretion originating in the head segments of nurse bees and used to feed the larvae.

S

sacbrood: a viral disease which affects the larva of honey bees.

SBB: abbr. screened bottom board. Also, solid bottom board.

screened bottom board: a bottom board with screen (usually #8 hardware cloth) for the bottom to allow ventilation and to allow Varroa mites to fall through. In Europe this is called an Open Mesh Floor.

scout bees: worker bees searching for a new source of pollen, nectar, propolis, water, or a new home for a swarm of bees.

secondary swarm: a smaller swarm which may occur after the primary swarm has occurred.

small cell: 4.9mm cell size. Used by some beekeepers to control Varroa mites.

smoker: a device in which materials are slowly burned to produce smoke (not flames) which is used to subdue bees. It is important to use a material that produces a cool smoke as not to harm the bees.

solar wax melter: a glass-covered insulated box used to melt wax from combs and cappings by the heat of the sun.

spermatheca: an organ in the queen abdomen in which sperm is stored.

stinger: the modified structure of a worker honey bee used as a weapon of offense. Honey bees have a barbed stinger which stays embedded in the recipient of sting cause the bee to later die.

Streptococcus pluton: bacteria that cause European foulbrood.

sublethal dose/concentration: a dose or concentration that induces no statistically significant mortality in the experimental population

sublethal effect: a physiological or behavioral change found in individuals that survive an exposure to a pesticide

sucrose: principal sugar found in nectar.

super: any hive body, or smaller box, used for the storage of surplus honey which the beekeeper will harvest. Normally it is placed over or above the brood chamber.

supersedure: a process in which a colony replaces its queen with a different one

surplus honey: any extra honey removed by the beekeeper, over and above what the bees require for their own use, such as winter food stores.

survivor stock: bees raised from bees that were surviving without treatments.

swarm: a temporary collection of bees, containing at least one queen that split apart from the mother colony to establish a new one; a natural method of propagation of honey bee colonies. The old part is left with a new queen, and the part the splits off takes the old queen.

swarming: the natural process of propagating a colony of honey bees.

swarm cell: queen cells usually found on the bottom of the combs before swarming.

swarm preparation: the sequence of activities of the bees that is leading up to swarming. Visually you can see this start at backfilling the brood nest so that the queen has no where to lay.

swarming season: the time of year, usually late spring to early summer, when swarms usually issue.

systemic pesticide: a pesticide that is absorbed and circulated by a plant or animal so that the plant or animal is toxic to pests that feed on it.

T

tanzanian top bar hive: a top bar hive with vertical sides.

telescopic cover: a cover with a rim that hangs down all the way around it usually used with a inner cover under it.

top bar: the top part of a frame or, in a top bar hive, just the piece of wood from which the comb hangs.

thorax: the middle region of a bee body that supports the wings and legs

trachael mite (Acarapis woodi): parasites that live in the trachea

trachea: a breathing apparatus consisting of branching tubes that conduct oxygen to the inner tissues of the bee

trophallaxis: direct food transfer between bees

UV

uncapped brood: eggs and larvae not covered by wax

uniting: combining two or more colonies to form a larger colony. Usually done with a sheet of newspaper between.

Varroa mites (Varroa destructor): parasites that feed on the hemolymph of bees and reproduce on the pupae. Originally on Apis Cerana. Made the jump to Apis mellifera and then spread across the world.

virgin queen: a queen which is not mated.

WXYZ

walkaway split: a new colony started by putting a few frames of brood, honey, and pollen into a nuc or brood box and allowing the bees to raise their own queen. The brood must contain eggs or very young larvae in order for the bees to succeed at raising a viable queen, and drones must be available in drone congregation areas for her to mate.

warm way: when frames in the brood box are parallel to the hive opening

wax glands: glands that secrete beeswax, which are in pairs on the underside of the last four abdominal segments.

wax moth: larvae of the moth Golleria mellonclia, which can seriously damage brood and empty combs.

winter cluster: a ball-like arrangement of adult bees within the hive during winter.

worker bees: infertile female bee whose reproductive organs are only partially developed, responsible for carrying out all the routine of the colony.

worker comb: comb measuring between 4.4mm and 5.4mm, in which workers are reared and honey and pollen are stored.

worker queen aka laying workers = Worker bees which lay eggs in a colony hopelessly queenless; such eggs are not fertilized